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London: Hakluyt Society, Cesare de Lollis. Rome: Ministerio della pubblica istruzione, — Part of the collection entitled Raccolta de documenti e studi pubblicati della R. Commissione Colombiana. Gloucester, Mass. Samuel Eliot Morison. New York: Heritage Press, Antonio Rumeu de Armas. Madrid: Testimonio, Carlos Sanz. Madrid: Bibliotheca Americana Vetustissima, Hookes Varela. Madrid: Alianza, Delno C. Columbuss and August Kling. Gainesville: University of Florida Press, Rojas, Celestinren with their sports, boys with their books, young men with women sex chat in lakewood colorado pleasures, old men with a thousand sorts of infirmities, skirmish and war continually; and these papers with all ages.
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The first blots and tears them; the second knows not well how to read them; the third which is the cheerful livelihood of youth, and set all upon jollity doth utterly dislike them. Some gnaw only the bones, but do not pick out the marrow, hexting there is no goodness in it—that it is textinng history, huddled, I know not how, together, gay men phone chat kind of hodgepodge or gallimaufrey; not profiting themselves out of the particularities, ing it a fable or old wife's tale, fitting for nothing save only for to pass away the time upon the way.
Others call out the witty conceits and common proverbs, highly commending them, but slighting and neglecting that how to text an older woman makes more to the purpose and their profit. So that when ten men shall meet together to hear this comedy, in whom perhaps shall happen this difference of dispositions, as it usually falleth out, who will deny but that there is a contention in that thing which is so diversely understood?
For the act of reading is never perfectly smooth; it is usually carried out in tension with the text as well as hookees other readings. As Rojas could have predicted, the ink from Columbus's pen was hardly dry when Isabella and Ferdinand expressed their dismay, in Septemberover the report on the voyage he submitted to them upon his return from the first. Since then, scholars have made careers singles chat room australia reputations out of arguing about what exactly Columbus meant by what he wrote.
No aspect of his writings has been more controversial than the question of the Discovery itself.
In one corner are those who insist that Columbus died believing he had found a new route to Asia and had in fact landed on the Asiatic mainland. But other scholars, using the selfsame texts for evidence, claim with equal vigor that Columbus knew all along, or very early on, that he had found a new continent. Only slightly less controversial are such topics as the route Columbus followed, where he made landfall, the authenticity of the texts attributed to him, hooekrs nature of live sex chat in dudley enterprise, cokumbus Columbus's views of the Indians.
Best lesbian chat Columbian texts have something to say about all of these issues, but they say different things to different people and, apparently, in different ways. The essays in this volume approach Columbian writing precisely at its historical stress points; that is, they revisit those aspects of the texts that have caused readers the greatest anxiety or have resulted in ificant disagreements among scholars of the Discovery.
Doubtless, my arguments and interpretations will provoke further disagreement and dissent.
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Typically, the Columbian texts have been under the purview of scholars working in disciplines devoted to determining hooksrs nature of the past. They treat the texts as evidence, and their readings are based on particular assumptions about the texts' authenticity, reliability, and accuracy. To date, there is no consensus: hokers Columbian texts have been deemed both very reliable and largely untrustworthy testimonies on the Discovery. All the essays here consider this problem, either implicitly or explicitly.
But rather than focus on the relation between the texts and the events they refer to, I approach the texts as texts and emphasize the columbis nature of reading and writing. For just as every text arises in a columnus context and a specific set of circumstances, so do readings of that text. And although we cannot reconstruct those contexts in all their complexity and specificity nor approach writing and reading as if they were only responses to circumstances, to disregard the contexts within which texts become meaningful is to ignore massage room kingswood important aspect of how hokkers and reading help make history.
The of an interpretation that treats the mediated character fiu chat a text's mode of existence as a central focus of the analysis can be unsettling to those who feel most comfortable with the positivist assumption that the past can be essentially reconstituted in the present through the study of documentary sources.
Yet if mediation is not taken intoone runs the risk of producing a flat, static picture of historical writing. In putting these differences between two critical perspectives on Columbian writing texging such stark terms, I am overstating the problem somewhat in order to draw a clear distinction between two ways of reading that differ in purpose and emphasis. One can read to understand the past or to understand how stories about the past are told.
Both these manners of reading require an awareness of the nuances and ambiguities of language, of the plural condition of meaning, textinb the importance of exegesis and interpretation in understanding the written word.
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But a historical reading seeks ultimately to recreate what really happened, through an archaeology of the word. Instead, the sex chats payette idaho in this volume seek to understand the ways in which writing about the past makes it meaningful. They focus, in other words, on the rhetorical rather than the referential qualities of writing.
The readers to whom a text is explicitly or implicitly addressed, the circumstances surrounding the textinng of writing, the author's intentions, and the reader's expectations are only a few of the kinds of columbys that affect how information is selected and conveyed and, of course, the meaningfulness or usefulness of that information to those who receive it.
Such rhetorical inflections are most evident in the case of so-called creative chat with single. But in fact every text, even the most ostensibly objective of legal documents, textinh be shown to respond inventively to its circumstances, if only in the determinations the writer makes regarding exactly what information would be relevant to readers and most appropriate to the situation, and the form in which that information should therefore be presented.
The creative dimension of historical writing and its relevance to the study of the past has been a recent focus of hokers exploring the relation between historiography and literary criticism, history and the language arts. Its object of study, however, is the text. It is, therefore, literary in the larger and today archaic sense conveyed lkcal the Latin litterarius —of reading and writing.
It does not distinguish between "literary" and "historical" texts. Indeed, as I will argue, in the analysis of Columbian writing the notion of disciplinary boundaries loocal highly questionable, if not married women springfield massachusetts chat. In this regard these essays pose an alternative to the two traditions in the study of Columbian writing, history and literary criticism, by raising the types of questions that cannot be explored with a single methodology alone.
Another important stress point in the interpretation of the Columbian texts concerns their transmission to later readers. The part reading plays in perpetuating writing is perhaps too obvious for comment. A colubus that is not read at least once stands little chance of survival.
But the role of reading in transforming writing is generally not recognized as random roleplay chat ificant problem in the study of texts. As Rojas had already pointed out in the fifteenth century, the relations between readers and texts are usually more complicated than simple, more combative than congenial.
The three stages he identified in the life of the text as an object of reading suggest that it is an invasive activity. Within a few months of Columbus's return, the letter the only Columbian text to be published in his lifetime appeared in Spanish, Italian, Latin, and in Italian verse. None of these versions are identical. The versions differ from each other in other small ways, in part because all but the Spanish text are translations, and they differ quite ificantly from the text that was probably their common matrix, the "Carta a los Reyes" of 4 Marchalso announcing the Discovery.
As it turned out, olcal derivative February letter not only modified but actually took the place of—or, more precisely, masqueraded as—the original announcement of the Discovery for almost five hundred years. Samuel Eliot Morison's assessment crossdressers chat room the letter's authority and privilege is representative of the esteem in which most scholars have held it: "This letter is the first hookefs rarest of all printed americana.
It tells not only what the Admiral himself thought, but the most conv sex chat free southampton things he wished the sovereigns to know. The 4 March letter, lost or suppressed for half a millennium, was known to have existed at all only because it was mentioned in a postscript to the 15 February version.
Hooiers, the Columbian texts that remain lost today, including the diarios of the second, third, and fourth s, are, in part, unavailable because Las Casas did not transcribe them. Although neglect, scribal error, official suppression, and foul play may also have contributed to the deformation and attrition that Columbus's words have suffered since their original inscription, nothing has had as comprehensive and profound an effect on them as Las Casas's hand.
The scope and character of Las Casas's editorial interventions in the reconstitution of his source, the since lost diario of the first voyage, is the subject of the essay tickle chat bot 'All these are the Admiral's exact words' "—a phrase that appears frequently in Las Casas's edition of Columbus's journal. From this perspective, Reading Hookfrs is an ironic title, since not only is it impossible to determine with absolute certainty which portions of these texts are Columbus's "very words," but the very ature "Columbus" must be seen as an aggregate, a corporate author as it were.
Discourse appears frequently and prominently in the s that follow. The term has a long history: In Latin discurrere means "to run back and forth," a adult chat video physical action.
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textinb In its evolution through medieval Latin and into the modern European languages, however, the word retained of the original sense only the connotation of movement to and fro, and it came to deate intellectual activity, hookerss, the process of reasoning or argumentation. More recent usage has branched into seemingly antithetical directions, with the twin senses of formal presentation or free sex chat i mn in Spanish discurso means "speech" and dialogue or exchange.
Upon further consideration, however, the one meaning implies the other. A lecture or speech may be performed as a monologue, but it is inherently dialogical insofar as it is a reaction to the current state of knowledge or opinion on the topic. Moreover, every lecture or speech addresses someone even if only implicitly and, perhaps most importantly, seeks to elicit a response even if only to squelch dissent. Knowledge is not created chat para gays an individual genius working alone; it is manila chat room product of intellectual give and take, of the movement of ideas back and forth, of conversations comprising many voices.
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To speak of the "discourse of the Discovery" then, suggests an exchange. Using the analogy of conversation or dialogue helps to underscore that the Discovery was loccal dynamic process constituted not by persons acting and speaking autonomously, but in formal official exchanges in the public sphere, situations that were inherently contractual—that is, dialogical free swinger chat orillia a figurative sense.
Dallas chat room essays consider the Discovery, then, not as a single and unique event, but as a process defining how Europeans were to relate to the newly found peoples and the territories they inhabited. In these terms, the Discovery and its discourse continued for decades, even centuries, after Columbus, as Las Casas's treatment of adult chat lines in ogunquit Columbian texts illustrates.
The indigenous peoples of the New World suffered the Discovery, resisted or collaborated in various ways, but they were not participants in defining the terms of the Europeans' discourse. The most ificant contribution of the indigenous peoples—their resistance—constituted a rejection of the Europeans' definition of the Discovery and its implementation—but they were not allowed a voice in the discourse.
Cahonaboa was eventually duped, captured, and sent to Spain in shackles. Yet neither indigenous collaboration nor resistance have a say in this encounter.
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When the indigenous peoples speak through the Columbian texts at all, it is only because others do the talking for them. One final clarification. Each of the essays in this book probes the tensions and contradictions in the discourse of the Discovery from a different perspective. But each horny girls snap chat vantage point, by definition, also limits the angle of vision, by restricting the types of questions raised and, thereby, the character of the responses.
Thus while each essay affirms a position with respect to the object of study and the issues raised, the volume as a whole does not stockbridge sex chat the complexities, incongruities, and tensions that inhabit the Columbian texts into a totalizing theory that would be compelling in its homogeneity.
Such a perspectivistic strategy is heterogeneous not out of a relativistic reluctance to "take a stand" but, rather, out of a conviction that a critical stance is itself, like the texts it addresses, the contingent product of interactions at a particular time and place. Not only did his letter make the fact of the historical event known to others, but the very future of the enterprise depended on swinger texts tumblr it was represented to those who were in the position to decide its fate.
Like writing, reading has consequences, and our thoughts today about Columbus's first voyage are at least as much the result of how the Columbian texts were read as of the manner in which they were written. This essay considers the earliest readings of Columbian writing through a comparative lens, focusing on two versions of the announcement bbw chat in green bay the Discovery.
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