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Invoke we now the four thousand, The myri four of the nimble, The four hundred thousand elves, The countless host of sprites, 5 Rank upon rank chat with people in my area woodland gods. Pray, Kane, also inspire us; Kanaloa, too, the assembly. Now grows the ohi'a, now leafs ie-ie; God enters, resides in the place; 10 He mounts, inspires, abides in the shrine. This is our prayer, our plea this for life! Chorus: Life shall be thine!

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Cyrus Thomas. Thehula- 11 H. Supportandorganizationofthehula, 26 V. Thepasaword—thesongof admission.

Thehniapa-ipu, or kuolo- 73 XI. The hulaki'i. The hula pahn. The huIa. The hula. Thehulaniau-bani- XX. The fref and musical instruments of the Hawaiia. The hula pa-hna.

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The hula kolani. The hulakolea. The hula kilu. The hulahoonana. GeneralTeview-— Glosaaj-y-————. MaiIe AlyxianiyrtiUifo]ia -m-eath- 32 V. Ipu hula, gourd drum-—- 73 VIII. Marionettes Maile-pakaha, Nihi-au-moe - 91 IX.

Maj-ionette Maka-ku. Pahu hula, huladrum. Lehua Metrosideros polymorpha flowers and leavea- XIV. Pu-niu, a dium-— XVII. Hala fruit bunch and drupe with a "lei" XIX. Pu Triton tritonis.

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Phyllodia and true leaves of the koa Acacia koa. Pala-palaifems-— XXII. Awa-pubi, a Hawaiianginger-l. Hinanohala-— XXIV. Range of thenoae-nute—Eisner- II. Musiofrom thenoae-nute—Eisner- ni. Songfromthehulapa'i-umauma—Berger- V. Songfromthe hulapa-ipn—Berger VI. Hawaii Fonot—Berger. Now, the hula stood for very much to the ancient Uloli it was to him in place of our concert-hall and lecture-room, our opera and theater, and thus became one of'his chief means of social enjoyment.

Besides this, it kept the communal imagination in living touch with the nation's legehdary past. The most telling free chat line numbers oak lawn of a people's intimate life is the record which it phoen makes in its songs.

Indianapolis Journal, Volume 52, 58,Indianapolis, Marion County, 27 February — 3

We must make a just distinction, however, between the gestures and bodily contortions presented by the men and women, the actors in, the hula, and their uttered words. If there ever were. Polynesian Arcadia, and if it were possible for true reports of the doings a. If this book phond nothing more than prove that savages are only children of a younger gro-wth than ourselves, that what we find them to have been we ourselves—in our aneestors—once were, the labor of making it will have been not in horom chat.

For an of the first hula ive may look to the story of Pele. Sediment related pollution can degrade and Cost effectiveness is based on the total frde of the rule because the municipal component includes construction activity within the watershed. Therefore, estimating the tons of TSS removed from secondary treatment is not possible. ES-6 Final Report Ilili Executive Summary destroy benthic habitat and organisms, decrease photosynthetic activity, and reduce the viability of aquatic biota.

Sediment can particularly detrimental to smaller streams, altering channel morphology and threatening critical aquatic habitat as well as human safety and property. Other pollutants such as metals, organics, pesticides, and nutrients can have chronic or acute effects on aquatic organisms and lead to bioaccumulation or eutrophication.

Estimation of Benefits In the economic analysis for the love to chat in danbury connecticut rule, a top-down approach was used to estimate economic benefits. Under this approach, the combined economic benefits for all wet weather programs were estimated first, and then were divided among various water programs on the basis of expert opinion. The use of an expert opinion in this manner rendered the benefits estimates for an individual program uncertain.

In addition, the approach was inconsistent with the bottom- up approach used to estimate the cost of the proposed storm hcat rule, which aggregated costs across municipalities and construction starts. Researchers normally prefer to base cost and benefits analysis on a similar structure. Bbw free chat adequately reflect the quantifiable benefits of the rule, EPA used two different approaches, one that relied on a national water quality model and another that relied on the b national water quality assessment.

Both approaches estimate benefits based on expected water quality improvements of the Phase II rule. Despite the difference in the estimates, both approaches show that benefits potentially phoone costs. This model estimates water quality and associated use support for themiles of rivers and streams in the EPA Reach File Version 1 RF1which covers the continental United States. The model analyzes water quality by stream reach based on point source and nonpoint source american bulldog breeders australia loadings and geographic and hydrologic conditions.

The model simulates the impact of loadings on water quality immediately below a point source in the down stream segment of a reach. The free bestiality chat projects improvements in water quality by comparing the simulation of a baseline loadings scenario with for a scenario based on Phase II municipal and construction site controls. These improvements are characterized as changes in modeled water quality classifications between four water quality use support : no support, boatable, frfe, and swimmable.

To calculate the economic benefits of change in water quality, the model overlays the water quality changes with estimates of households in the proximity of the affected stream reach. The household estimates are based on the Census of Populated Places and Minor Civil Divisions, and updated population levels. Economic benefits are calculated multiplying of households by household willingness-to-pay WTP values for water quality improvements. The benefits are separately estimated for local and nonlocal waters on the basis of WTP values.

Fee baseline conditions are described below. The model normally requires an engineering surrogate for treatment of specific pollutants contained in discharges, whereas the Phase II program includes both structural pohne nonstructural controls. Carson and Mitchell estimate the WTP for three minimum levels of fresh water iooli boatable, fishable, and swimmable.

EPA adjusted the WTP amounts to for inflation, growth in real per capita income, and increased attitudes towards tamil live sex phone chat control. Thus, if improvement occurs in waters that are not close to population centers, the economic value is lower. Benefits are estimated for local and nonlocal waters, separately by apportioning the WTP between local and nonlocal waters.

Mitchell and Carson asked respondents to apportion each of their "it it" "ffi, 4The benefits analysis used 5, municipalities instead of 5, used for the cost analysis. ES-8 Final Report October Executive Summary stated WTP values between achieving the water quality goals in their own state and achieving those goals in the nation as a whole.

To estimate the aggregate nonlocal benefits, nonlocal WTP is multiplied with the total of households hi the United States. Sensitivity Analysis The benefit estimates are derived using conservative assumptions of the pollution control effectiveness of the municipal component of the Phase II rule. The Phase I and Phase II urban runoff controls used hi this analysis employ pollutant removals that would be characteristic of detention basins.

To determine the impact of the sex chat simulator assumptions a sensitivity analysis is conducted. The benefit estimates can be considered quite robust because model sensitivity analyses have consistently shown that the estimates are stable, even under assumptions of large changes hi model input values.

Moreover, a statistical groundtrathing of the model to storage and retrieval ambient water quality data indicates that the NWPCAM produces reliable baseline estimate can be considered as a reasonable predictor of the actual use support for s. October Final Report ES-9 Executive Summary National Water Quality Assessment This approach to estimating the benefits of the Phase II rule estimated benefits separately for the municipal minimum measure and the soil erosion control provisions.

Furthermore, it estimated partial benefits associated with marine water quality improvements. Each component is described separately below and aggregate benefits are reported at the end of this section. T Runoff from Phase II municipalities contribute loadings of nutrients, metals, oil and grease, and litter that result in impairment of the nation's rivers and streams, lakes, reservoirs, Great Lakes, estuaries, and oceans. The benefits of implementation of the Phase II municipal minimum measures to remove impairment depend on a of factors, including theintensity, and duration of wet weather events; the success of the municipal programs; the site-specific water quality and physical conditions; the current and potential uses of the receiving waters; and the existence of nearby "substitute" sites of unimpaired waters.

Because all these factors will austin sex chat site Substantially from municipality to municipality, data and free senior sex chat are not available with which to develop estimates of benefits measure by measure and water body by water body.

EPA applied Carson and Mitchell's estimates of the household WTP for incremental water quality improvements to estimates of waters impaired by urban storm water discharges as reported by states in their b reports. Carson and Mitchell's study reports the of their national survey of WTP for incremental improvements in fresh water quality. Carson and Mitchell estimate the Freeadult chat for three minimum levels of fresh water quality: beatable, fishable, and swimmable.

To develop estimates for the potential value of the municipal measures except storm water runoff controls for construction sitesEPA apportioned the WTP estimates for the different water quality levels based on the baseline level of text random online girls quality impairment potentially associated with Phase II municipalities. However, although the Carson and Mitchell estimates apply to all fresh water, it is not clear how these values would be apportioned among rivers, lakes, and Great Lakes.

The b data indicate that lakes are the most impaired by urban runofi7sto;rm sewers, followed closely by Great Lakes, and then rivers. Therefore, EPA applied the WTP values to the separately and assumed that the higher resulting value for lakes represents the high end of the range i. This is because the benefit analysis was based on current water quality impairment levels in the b report. The post-construction runoff control provision will mitigate future impairment to water bodies by controlling contaminated storm water runoff from sites that are chat gay chileno or redeveloped in the future.

This would happen because free sex dating chat increases the amount of impervious surface.

Such increases hi imperviousness alter runoff patterns and reduces the effectiveness of natural water quality improvement mechanisms, such as groundwater infiltration and wetlands filtration. Furthermore, development introduces cree sources of contamination frse a watershed. Without this provision, national water quality cht from Phase II would increase relative to the impairment levels currently feee in the b. This analysis is based on projections of current impairment levels reported in the b that use disturbed area estimates free basildon gay chat rooms the affected construction starts as a proxy for potential long-term future water quality impacts.

In addition to the fresh water benefits captured by the Carson and Mitchell study, EPA anticipates benefits as a result of improvements to marine waters. Sufficient methods have horny chats working at kenosha giant been developed to quantify benefits for commercial or recreation fishing. EPA used beach closure data and visitation estimates from its Beach Watch Program to estimate potential reductions in marine swirnming visits due to storm water runoff contamination events in The estimated 86, trips that did not occur because of beach closures in coastal Phase II communities is a lower bound because it represents only those beaches that report both closures and visitation auer free sex chat line. EPA developed an analysis of potential benefits associated with avoided health impacts from exposure to contaminants in storm sewer effluent.

Based on a study of incremental illnesses found among people who swam within one yard of storm drains in Santa Monica Bay, EPA estimated a range of incremental illnesses Haile et al. Ftee Santa Monica Bay study reported attributable illnesses for several health symptoms. The attributable illnesses characterized incremental cases of illness found among those swimming close to the storm drains compared to a control group swimming at least yards away from the drains.

The benefits analysis applied values to two of the symptom. During construction, soil erosion from disturbed areas increases sediment lo in water bodies, which le to a variety of habitat impairments, increases flooding risks, and adds to dredging costs. In addition to sediment, construction activities also yield pollutants such as pesticides, petroleum products, and solvents. The national benefits of construction site storm water runoff controls will depend on a of factors, including theintensity, and duration of wet weather events; the effectiveness of the selected construction site BMPs; the site- specific water quality and physical conditions of receiving waters; the current and potential uses of receiving waters; and the existence of nearby "substitute" sites of unimpaired waters.

Again, because these factors will vary substantially from site to site, data are not available with which to develop estimates of benefits for each site. Paterson et al. This study provides one way to develop national-level benefits estimates of the rule and, therefore, EPA chose to use benefit transfer methodology to vhat the study. Paterson et al's. The similarity of the median incomes indicates that the WTP estimates developed by Paterson et al. The impact of Phase II construction sites on overall construction soil erosion damages to water quality is uncertain.

EPA developed a benefit range based on high and low impact assumptions. For the low impact assumption, EPA used the percentage of total construction site perimeter affected by the Phase II rule father than the percentage of total sites. This range reflects the potential benefits of erosion and sediment control programs that protect all lakes, rivers, and streams. However, because construction can be especially harmful to small stream habitat, EPA is interested in the benefits that may be attributable to improvements in small stream ecology.

Summary of Monetized Benefits: National Water Quality Assessment A summary of the potential benefits resulting from implementation of the Phase II municipal measures and erosion and sediment controls for construction sites is presented in Exhibit ES The free sex chat auchinleck portion of benefits are associated with erosion and sediment controls for construction sites.

Farsi chat shown in the exhibit, some of benefits are not caht in the WTP estimates phne the research used. In particular, benefits for improving marine water quality such as fishing and passive use benefits are not included in the values used to estimate the potential benefits of the municipal mLnimum measures conversation starters for texting a girl construction sites controlsand they are not estimated separately.

Fresh water value only. Does not include commercial fishery,or diversionary e. May not tally capture human health risk reduction or ecologic values.

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Unfortunately Kapo had an evil name on of a propensity which led her at times to commit actions pnone seem worthy only of a demon of lewdness. This was, however, only the hysteria of a moment, not the settled habit of her life. On one notable occasion, by diverting the attention of the chat rooms 60 cleveland international 60 pig-god Kama-pua'a, and by vividly presenting to him a temptation well adapted to his gross nature, she succeeded in enticing him away at a critical moment, and thus rescued her sister Pele at a time when the latter's life was pbone by an unclean and violent assault from the swine-god.

Like Catherine of Russia, who in one mood was the patron of literature and of the arts and sciences lenoir city nsa sex chat in another mood a very satyr, so the Hawaiian goddess Kapo seems to have lived a double life whose aims were at adult video chat auburn alabama purposes with one another-now an angel of grace and beauty, now a demon of darkness and lust.

Do we not find in this the counterpart of nature's twofold aspect, who presents herself to dependent humanity at one time as an alma mater, the food-giver, a divinity of fere and comfort, at another time as the demon of the storm and earthquake, a plowshare of fiery destruction? The name of Hiiaka, the sister of Pele, is one often mentioned in the prayers of the hula. 26 IV. The actors in this institution were not producers of life's necessaries. To the alii ilolii the land and the sea and all the useful products thereof.

Even the jetsam xxx and wreckage scraps of iron that ocean cast up on the shore were claimed by the lord of the land. Everything was the king's. Thus it followed free sex chat louisville necessity that the support of the hula must in the end rest upon the alii. As in ancient Rome it was a senator frfe general, enriched by the spoil of a province, who phond the sports of the arena, so in ancient Hawaii it was the chief or headman of the district who took the initiative in the promotion of the people's communistic sports and of the hula.

We must not imagine that the hula was a thing only of hpone courts and chiefish residences.

It had another and democratic side. The passion for the hula was bropread. If other agencies failed to meet the demand, there was nothing to prevent a company of enthusiasts from ing themselves together in the pleasures and, it might be, the profits of the hula. Their spokesman--deated as the po'o-puaa, from the fact that sexchat uk pig, or a chqt head, was required of him as an offering at the kuahu--was authorized to secure the services of some expert to be their kumu.

But with the hula all ro lead to the king's court. Let us imagine a scene at the king's residence. The alii, rousing from his sloth and rubbing his eyes, rheumy gun chat debauch and awa, overhears remark on the doings of a new company of hula dancers who have come into the neighborhood.

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He summons his chief steward. Tell me, what is it? They mouth and twist the old songs all awry, thou son of heaven. I will hear them to-morrow. Send a messenger for this new kumu. Fill again my bowl with awa. Success to the men and women of the hula means not merely applause, in return for the incense of flattery; it means also a shower of substantial favors--food, garments, chatango sex chat smile of royalty, perhaps land--things that make life a festival.

If welcome grows cold and it becomes evident that the harvest has been reaped, they move on to fresh woods and pastures new. To return from this apparent digression, it was at the king's court--if we may extend the courtesy of this phrase to a group of thatched gay chat up lines were gathered the bards and those skilled in song, those in whose memories were stored the mythologies, traditions, genealogies, proverbial wisdom, and poetry that, warmed by emotion, was the stuff from which was spun the songs of the hula.

As fire is produced by friction, so it was often by the congress of wits rather than by the flashing of genius that the songs of the hula were evolved. The composition and criticism of a poetical passage were a matter of high importance, often requiring many suggestions and much consultation. If the poem was to be a mele-inoa, a name-song to eulogize some royal or princely scion, it must contain no word of ill-omen.

The fate-compelling power of such a word, once shot from the mouth, was beyond recall. If not, it recoiled on the life of the singer. The verbal form once settled, it remained only to stereotype it on the memories of the men and women who constituted the literary court or chat icon. Think not that only thus were poems produced in ancient Hawaii.

The great majority of songs were probably the fruit of solitary inspiration, in which the bard poured out his heart like a song-bird, or leominster free sex chat his lone vision as a seer.

The method of poem production in conclave may be termed the official method. It was often done at the command of an alii. So much for the fabrication, the weaving, of a song. If the composition was intended as a eulogy, it was cantillated ceremoniously before the one it honored; if in anticipation of a prince yet unborn, it was daily recited hot chat rooms the mother until the hour of her delivery; and this cantillation published it abroad.

If the song was for production in the hula, it lay warm in the mind of the kumu, the master and teacher of the chta, until such time as he had organized houston sensual message company.

The court of the alii was a vortex that drew in not only the bards and men of lore, but the gay and fashionable rout of pleasure-seekers, the young men and women of shapely form and gracious presence, the sons and daughters of the king's 28 henchmen and favorites; among them, perhaps, the offspring of the king's morganatic alliances and amours--the flower and pick of Hawaii's youth. From these the kumu selected those most fitted by beauty and grace of form, as well as quickness of wit and liveliness of imagination, to take part in the hula.

The performers in the hula were divided into two classes, the olapa--agile ones--and the ho'o-paa--steadfast ones. The role of olapa, as was fitting, was ased to the young men and young women who could best illustrate in their persons the grace and beauty of the human form. It was theirs, sometimes while singing, to move and pose and gesture in the dance; sometimes also to punctuate their song and action with the lighter instruments of music.

They sexy older women message 23323 the heavier instruments and played their parts mostly while sitting or kneeling, marking the time with their instrumentation. They also lent their voices to swell the chorus or utter the refrain of certain songs, sometimes taking the lead in the song or bearing its whole burden, while the light-footed olapa gave themselves entirely to the dance. The part of the ho'o-paa was indeed the heavier, the more exacting duty.

Such was the personnel of a hula troupe when first gathered by the hula-master for training and drill in the halau, now become a school for the hula. Among the pupils the kumu was sure to find some old hands at the business, whose presence, like that of veterans in a squad of recruits, was a leaven to inspire the whole company with due respect for the spirit and traditions of the historic institution and to breed in the members the patience necessary to bring them to the highest proficiency.

The instruction of the kumu, as we are informed, took a wide range. It dealt in elaborate detail on such matters as accent, inflection, and all that concerns utterance and vocalization. It naturally paid great attention to gesture and pose, attitude and bodily action. That it included comment on the meaning that lay back of the words may be gravely doubted.

The average hula dancer of modern times shows great ignorance of the mele he recites, and this is true even of bondage room kumu-hula. His work too often is largely perfunctory, a matter of sound and form, looking for sex chat free online baker appeal to the intellect.

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